Civil War Campaign Medal
The medal was first authorized in 1905 for the fortieth anniversary of the Civil War's conclusion. It was awarded to any veteran of the conflict, regardless of what side the veteran had served on (Union or Confederate). It was issued in two versions, one for United States Army or Confederate States Army service and the other for duty in the Confederate or United States Navy. The Army Civil War Campaign Medal displayed an engraved image of Abraham Lincoln while the Navy version depicted an ironclad battle. Members of the Confederate Marines and United States Marine Corps were eligible to receive the Navy version of the Civil War Campaign Medal. The medal was originally intended as a Commemorative Decoration, but was almost immediately granted status as a military decoration authorized for wear on active duty uniforms. This was due in large part to the fact that several senior military officers, still on active duty in 1905, were veterans of the Civil War. In 1918, for those who had been cited for gallantry in action, the Silver Citation Star was authorized as a device to the medal. The Civil War Campaign Medal is considered the first campaign service medal of the United States military. The decoration was awarded to members of the Union and Confederate militaries who had served in the American Civil War between 1861 and 1865.